eu flag tempus

Данный проект финансируется при поддержке Европейской Комиссии. В данной публикации отражены взгляды её авторов, и Европейская Комиссия не несёт ответственности за информацию, представленную в этой публикации и за любое её использование.




       Образовательные курсы (Moodle)

Achieving Sustainability in Applied Marine Science Education: Using European Experience in Russia
19.11.2014 00:00
There are no translations available.

Achieving Sustainability in Applied Marine Science Education:

Using European Experience in Russia


Prof. Dr. Michael B. Shilin,

Dr. Tatjana Eremina

Department of Oceanography

Russian State Hydrometeorological University, 195196 Malookhtinsky pr. 98,

St. Petersburg, Russia


Keywords Education, Applied Marine Science, Curriculum, Labour market, Dissemination


Abstract The significance of reorganization of the educational process in Applied Marine Sciences (AMS) is related to the increasing relevance of environmental issues in coastal EU countries and Russia, and to changes on labour market. Negative anthropogenic changes in marine and coastal ecosystems, with the background of climate change, can result in serious consequences for future generations. Only competently trained professionals who understand the relationship between theoretical and practical multidiscipline problems of AMS can find the sustainable solution of these problems. Training of such specialists should be based on the latest international achievements. A newly developed curriculum should be oriented on the changed situation on labour market in EU and Russia.


Introduction: Project “Education in Applied Marine Sciences”

The new socio-economic conditions prevailing in Russia in the early XXI century, its integration into the global economy and the appearance of new labour market resulted in prerequisites for a higher education reform. The reform is aimed at overcoming the following problems:

  • lack of competency-based close cooperation between experts, researchers and teachers;
  • training on obsolete (non-renewable) programs;
  • weak differentiation of three levels within the curricula;
  • lack of well-formed and unified transparent standards for assessment educational process at different universities;
  • little use of modern information and communication technologies;
  • insufficient focus on the development of the system of environmental safety of marine and coastal environment.

During 2011-2014 the TEMPUS eMaris project “Education in Applied Marine Sciences” has been implemented by 6 partner universities (PU) from the EU and Russia: Russian State Hydrometeorological university (RSHU, St. Petersburg, Russia), Immanuil Kant Baltic Federal university (IK BFU, Kaliningrad, Russia), State Marine Technical university (SMTU, St. Petersburg, Russia), University of Klaipeda (KU, Lithuania), University of Cadiz (UCA, Spain), University of Bremen (UNI HB, Germany). The other partners were Academic Association of Universities for Hydrometeorology (AAU, St. Petersburg, Russia), and St. Petersburg Branch of Shirshov Institute of Oceanology of Russian Academy of Sciences RAS (SPBIO, St. Petersburg, Russia) (Eremina et al. 2014). The project main goal was to achieve sustainability in AMS education in Russia in new socio-economic conditions with using EU experience. The overall wider objective of the project was to continue the reform of the Russian higher education system in the area of AMS to comply with the Bologna Declaration and the demands of Strategic Framework for European Cooperation in Education and Training (ET 2020). The significance of reorganization of the educational process in the field of AMS is related to the increasing relevance of environmental issues. Global environmental change and economic development of society, including marine and coastal sectors, are closely related to each other (Shilin, Khaimina 2014). Negative changes in marine and coastal ecosystems, caused by human activity and climate change, can lead to serious consequences for future generations. In the future, only competently trained professionals can find a correct and adequate solution of these problems (Karlin et al. 2012, Eremina et al. 2014). Training of such specialists and developing of new curricula should be based on the latest international achievements (Ryzhov 2013, Wishnevsky et al. 2013, Eremina et al. 2014, Gordeeva et al. 2014).

The main objectives of the eMaris project were:

  • to develop internationally recognized, effective working and sustainable competency-based three-level curricula (Bachelor/Master/Doctor) and syllabi in AMS according to the best Bologna practices;
  • to create and implement a collaboration platform for development of sustainable academic environment and to enhance networking among higher education and research institutions across the PU;
  • to enhance the syllabi for AMS with innovative learning methods (mobile lectures, e- & m-learning modules, “training through the research” approach, etc.);
  • to implement the developed competency-based three-level curricula in AMS at Russian universities (RSHU, IK BFU, SMTU);
  • to use the results and outputs of the project in all European PU.


Research of labour market for experts in Applied Marine Sciences: case of Russia

Since 1990 there has been a 2.3 time decrease in number of employees in the scientific sector, managed by RAS. The average age of a researcher is now about 60 years. Annual inflow of young scientists to RAS institutes makes less than 4 % from a total number of research associates. In the last 6-7 years the certain measures have been taken to improve the age structure of scientific personnel, to attract and to fix talented youth at the academic institutes, ensure scientific and administrative growth of young scientists. The analysis of dynamics of structure of the Academy staff over the last 5 years according to age categories indicates the growth (although slow) of researchers percentage of 30 years old and younger and from 30 to 40 years old. Although the average age of “doctors of science” makes nearly 65 years, the number of doctors below 40 years old steadily grows. Average age of “candidates of science” is over 50 years, but the number of candidates in the age category below 40 years old is growing. Annually about 900 people who finished their postgraduate study (about 2 % out of number of RAS research associates) stay for work at RAS institutes.

The macroeconomic parameters say for a rather satisfactory present state of labour market in Russia. Employment level is remaining at a rather high level (over 65 %), and unemployment level is rather low (below 7 %). At the same time, the dynamics of employment structure reflects the absence of movement towards modernization. Modernizing and restructuring of the science-based economy must generate new job places of high quality (more technologically advanced, requiring high level of education and qualification).

Young people make about 35 % of the able-bodied population of Russia. Over 50 % of young people employed in science-based companies have a second job in various alternative forms of employment. Youth are actively participating in entrepreneurship: about 70-80 % of registered companies of the alternative economy sector are organized by the people aged 25-30. At the same time, the absence of mechanism regulating the job placement of graduates of universities leads to serious problems. Qualified young professionals often change their specialization. In future it may result in a misbalance in the professional structure of labour force. The priority is not given to the intellectual work, but to the work with low intensity aimed at significant financial profit. If the existing trends in reproduction of qualified staff will not change, a growth of unemployment can be expected among young graduates of universities that do not continue their further education.

The educational institutions are still weakly oriented on market requirements and do not study the position of their graduates on the market.

Most of the graduates of higher education institutions are aimed at working activity (90 % of graduates). However, only 60 % of graduates plan to work in their specialization field; the remaining 30 % want to work in a different field.

During 2000-2011, the place of work was changed by 19.4 % of scientists, including 15.9 % of researchers, 18.5 % of professors and teachers of higher education institutions and 34 % of staff of industrial enterprises. “Candidates of science” have been changing their place of work more often than “doctors of science”. The main reasons are: low salary (31.5 %) and lack of prospects of career growth (23.5 %). Nearly 40 % of experts with a scientific degree have a second place of employment. The change of the area of scientific activity is typical for “candidates of science” of 50-59 and 30-39 years old.

Complex measures directed on improvement of the age structure of scientific personnel should include:

  • motivation and attraction of youth;
  • initiative of formation of Master courses;
  • competition for medals of the Academy with awards for young scientists;
  • growth of salary rate for youth;
  • development of a departmental system of additional provision of pensions.

Total number of researchers working in the field of marine sciences in RAS institutions at present makes about 1000 people. If the RAS funding in the next years will not be cut down significantly, and the economy of Russia will develop according to the basic (inertial) scenario, the Academy's need for young scientists in the field of AMS will make at least 20 people annually (2 % out of total number of scientists).


Research of labour markets in the Baltic countries region

The EU Baltic Sea Region (BSR), made up of nine economically developed countries, with almost 85 million inhabitants (17 % of EU population), has actively embraced the many opportunities reinforcing EU integration and increasing regional coherence.

The BSR has a relatively large offer on higher education possibilities. Almost every Baltic university offers some sort of marine-related courses, such as oceanography, marine ecology, marine physics, shipping, navigation, fishery or recently also maritime policy and spatial planning. Besides the traditional maritime industry sectors (shipbuilding, navigation and fishery), the so-called New Maritime Sector is emerging globally as a powerful future labour market (marine energetic, offshore construction and exploration, aquaculture, bio-energy, maritime safety and law, production of hydrocarbons, desalinisation, blue biotechnology, marine spatial planning, modern harbour management and development, environmental engineering and protection).

The labour market of BSR strongly depends on economic situation. Economy growth increases the number of jobs and the need for specialists. In times of economic recession the demand for specialists decreases. Therefore EU education and training policies have gained impetus since the adoption of the Lisbon Strategy in 2000, the EU's overarching programme focusing on growth and jobs. With each BSR state responsible for its own education and training systems, policies are designed to support national actions. In the future universities of the BSR can benefit from sharing experiences.

Training the next generation of marine scientists presents new challenges in the context of important policy changes. The EU Innovation Strategy recognizes that education is essential for the creation of an innovation-oriented society. The unified professional qualification system, expressed in credits, can help for the research and indicate level of labour markets in BSR. ECTS is a standard for comparing the study attainment and performance of students of higher education across the EU and other collaborating European countries.

In common, the BSR maritime educational offer is large, but not always reflecting the job market conditions. It would be a great benefit if all Baltic higher-education institutions would cooperate with each other and with labour market agencies in order to enable their graduates’ career in the Maritime Sector.

Well educated specialists in AMS are needed on the labour market; but there is a lack of a common methodology for evaluation of specialist knowledge. There is no unified system that will help to determine how many graduates are employed in Maritime Sector. The development and implementation of common assessment methodology is needed.

Due to the increasing migration and mobility of specialists in the BSR, it is required to develop the pan-European equivalent of student competencies. The unified system would equalize the competitiveness opportunities and would enhance the mobility of professionals in AMS.


Survey of employers and professional associations in Russia

In order to carry out an analysis of labour market in AMS in Russia, a questionnaire was prepared for employers and for higher education institutions that train relevant staff. Questionnaires were sent to 106 state and private companies in order to find the need in experts in AMS, application of modern technologies, and to discover directions of improvement of expert training. As a result, more than 50 answers were received from organizations of St. Petersburg, Kaliningrad, Murmansk, Rostov-on-Don and Krasnodar region, number of staff in which varied from 6 to 525 people, with an average number of staff of 122 people.

Only in 10% of organizations the modernization and new technologies introduction are not planned. In major part of organizations (over 50 %) new technologies are planned to be introduced, and new experts are to be invited. Development of organization and recruitment of new staff is expected in 10 % of organizations.

Answers for the question “How would you assess the salary level of experts in AMS” reflected the fact that salary is one of the key aspects of choosing the work place by an employee. Only in 15 % of organizations the salary level is higher than the average in the region. The salary of experts in AMS is predominantly lower than average in the region.

When answering the question “Do you think that the university gave training to graduates in the field of AMS sufficient to work in your company? In what degree”? employers and heads of departments noted the level of training of young experts as “middling”, with low degree of practical experience. No respondent stated the maximum degree of qualification of young experts. Thus, the general preparedness of experts in the field of AMS right after graduating a higher education institution can be considered as “partially sufficient”.

All respondents noted the high level of theoretical training of graduates. 10 % of respondents noted the low level of practical preparedness of graduating experts.

The degree of provision young experts by necessary information and literature sources in universities is estimated as “good”.

The qualitative level of the teaching staff (TS) is estimated as rather high by 50 % of respondents.

According to the level of outside study and training in EU universities, the most part of respondents indicates the “middling” level of this parameter, possibly, because the absence of traditions, and also as a result of insignificant desire of graduates to receive new knowledge caused by mobility.

The assessment of graduates’ experience of independent research activity upon graduating higher education institutions is estimated as “moderate”. It should be noted, that according to the requirements of the Russian State Educational Standard (SES), the number of “hours” / ECTS allocated in syllabi the research project is quite low, therefore this skill can be undeveloped in principle.

The number of questions in the questionnaire was directed towards detection of the need of improvement of graduate training. A need to improve the teaching material and technical base was noted by less than 50 % of respondents. The laboratory base is desirable to be improved according to 40 % of respondents. The provision with modern equipment is necessary everywhere in universities.

Improvement of information and software provision of educational process is rather “obligatory” than “desirable”. Only 5 % of respondents indicated the improvement of information and software provision of educational process to be unessential, possibly due to specifics of company work. Rising of TS skill level is on the opposite “desirable” but not “obligatory”. Only 15 % of respondents declared the need of TS professional development. These results can say for a high level of experts still working in the sphere of university education.

When asking about the improvement of the organization of practice during training, more than 50 % of respondents specify on its “obligatory” improvement. The majority (75 %) of respondents point to a need of training directly at the specialized companies. More than 60 % of respondents indicate a need of students’ involvement in research projects.

Personal qualities, competences and abilities of experts in AMS were studied. It was shown that a true professional should not only have a diploma on graduation of a specialized Higher Education Institution. He/she also has to possess a number of personal competences formed, on one hand, during the training, on another – being an integral part of personal development (Table 1).





Table 1. Assessment of importance of personal qualities, competences and abilities of experts in Applied Marine Sciences




Initiative and entrepreneurial spirit


Ability to work independently


Ability to work in a group


Orientation on career growth and professional development


Communication with non-experts


Ability to effectively represent oneself and results of one’s work


Ability to solve non-standard problems


Ability to adapt to changing conditions


Readiness and capability of further training


General intelligence and culture


Ability to work in an international context


Ability of understanding other cultures


Ability to extract and analyze information from various sources


Ability to think critically



For the assessment of degree of importance of practical skills, the scale of importance ranging from 1 to 5 (table 2) was chosen. A personal quality, with which the maximum number of interrelations of skills and other qualities is observed, is the ability to “solve non-standard problems” (for example – in frames of scientific projects).

The ability to “think critically” is on the second place by number of significant links, and “research skills” - on the third.


Table 2. Assessment of importance of practical skills in various fields of activity for experts in Applied Marine Sciences





Abilities to interpret and carry out a survey


Skills to present information to audience


Experience of research work


Awareness of the last scientific and technical achievements in AMS


Abilities to estimate risks connected with consumer use of provided information and products


Abilities to apply computing skills and knowledge of methods of data and information processing


Abilities to analyze and interpret maps, charts and plots, to integrate all available data to make a summary diagnosis, to carry out monitoring of environmental conditions in real time with the use of radar and satellite observations


Knowledge and abilities to apply principles, methods and forecasting schemes, understanding of numerical models’ principle of action


Understanding of assessment, control and quality management principles


Skills of information collection from primary and secondary sources, including Internet search


Knowledge of computer technologies


Knowledge of English


Abilities of development and management of projects


Leadership skills


Knowledge of the main marketing methods and procedures


Abilities to apply innovative management principles


Skills of human resource management



It was necessary to find out if modernization and application of new technologies in AMS is foreseen in institutions, so the students would be qualified for that. All the employers indicated that new technologies would be installed and new specialists would be required, except for one of respondents (with low financial support). In the future the demand for specialists in AMS is likely to increase, although an accurate prediction is not possible at the moment. At present time, there is a demand for Bachelor, Master and PhD students. Experts with Master, and especially Doctoral qualification are mostly needed. The importance of experts with high qualification in AMS was pointed out.

Summarizing the responses, we can claim that in general employers are quite satisfied with the preparation of students in universities.

Employers were asked to evaluate in scores (where 1 is the lowest, 5 is the highest) the quality of training of graduates in AMS, based on their personal experience. The results obtained were homogeneous. In this sense all of the answers for theoretical training were 3 or 4, that demonstrates high level of students' theoretical education. However, the results related to practical training were lower. The employers are in agreement about the need of additional practical training of graduates. It was recommended to pay attention to practical programs in all links of the three-level curricula.

According to the results of study, the employers propose to improve the following aspects of the education of young experts in AMS:

  • knowledge of the English language;
  • knowledge of computer technologies, methods of data and information processing;
  • ability to analyze and interpret maps, charts and graphs, to integrate all existing data for making a final diagnosis, to conduct monitoring of natural conditions in real time with the use of radar and satellite observations;
  • awareness of the latest scientific and technical achievements in the area of AMS;
  • knowledge and ability to apply principles, methods and forecast schemes, understanding of the principle of numerical model action.

As conclusion it should be marked:

  • all of the employers were in agreement with the high level of the graduates' theoretical knowledge;
  • employers highly recommend the improvements of students' practical training through their involvement in research projects;
  • experts with Master and PhD degrees are mostly needed on the labor market, so it is necessary to develop high quality programs on Master and PhD levels to ensure the adequate qualification for students.

The results of the questionnaire answers were homogeneous among the employers from different institutions.


Ways to make education in AMS sustainable

On the basis of the collaboration network, as a result of the eMaris project, a new paradigm for AMS education in Russia was created in respect to integration, harmonization and aggregation of various types of quality-controlled e-learning components. The related contextual content, such as mobile lectures and test-centers, were developed. The EU universities transferred their experience in the development of advanced training programs (UCA, KU) and promoted innovative learning technologies (UNI HB). Russian universities have accepted the experience of EU partners, developed and implemented a new three-cycle educational model (RSHU, IK BFU, SMTU), adapting achievements of scientific research institutions for the development of doctoral programs (SPBIO) and performing a wide implementation of project results at the national level (AAU).

The educational programs of the EU and Russian PU were compared. Master curricula of the PU differ significantly from each other. These differences are “natural”, because teaching programs are focused on practical needs of the marine industry in such geographically diverse countries as Russia, Spain, Lithuania and Germany. A comparative analysis of a set of competences confirmed the possibility of development of competence-based integrated Master programs.

The comparative analysis of the differences in Doctoral training at PU served as a basis for formulation of recommendations for training programs compilation. These recommendations included specialized courses in marine sciences, the study of modern research methods, the role of modern communications, etc. The curricula and syllabi developed during the project are directly related to Russian national priorities and, in particular, to marine and coastal environmental problems (Shilin, Khaimina 2014).

The three-level enhanced curricula and syllabi were developed by retrained staff of PU for Bachelor (240 ECTS; 4 years), Master (120 ECTS; 2 years) and Doctoral level (180 ECTS; 3 years) in AMS, taking into account the results of the surveys of labour market and competencies. The following modules were created: (1) Applied marine ecology; (2) Fisheries management and assessment; (3) Numerical modeling of marine environment and hydro-ecosystems; (4) Operational forecasting modeling of natural and anthropogenic stress-factors. New textbooks on these topics for MSc-level were written and published using the best international practices. The subjects of new syllabi for all three levels were provided by innovative technologies and e-modules using collaborative platform SAKAI (Wishnevsky et al. 2013, Gordeeva et al. 2014).

Training programs and methodological guidelines for the third (Doctoral) cycle were developed. The structure of individual plans for post-graduate training was proposed in terms of targets and training time as well as in terms of acquisition of professional skills.

The joint experience of PU was used in order to:

  • shift from individual to structured training programs;
  • move to multilateral (including international) educational guidance (supervision);
  • obtain “practices” at different universities;
  • support mobility at the doctoral level;
  • organize international summer schools and scientific conferences, etc.

As a consequence from these activities, a collaborative Network was developed (eMaris Network). The created collaboration platform aims at different target groups (students, professors, administrative staff, project members etc.).

Russian universities will use the hybrid learning model in the educational process. In the hybrid model, the traditional full-time (face-to-face) education is supported by the Web-oriented educational technologies (e-& m-learning). Students get access to the collaborative platform which incorporates constantly updated learning content, system of online tests, along with access to the various online libraries and other services. The hybrid form of training allows to make the educational process more flexible: for example, it is possible to modify the educational processes by selecting the desired learning module / study area. This model will give more chances for women (students, teachers and research staff) because of the omnipresent approach, continuous access via Internet, mobility and better transparency for the job competence in career planning.

One of the results of the project is the expansion of application of developed programs and possibility to use them in different practical cases that arise during maritime activities (Eremina et al. 2014, Shilin, Khaimina 2014).

The implementation of distant information exchange will expand the number of students both with a full degree assignment and with separate modules of educational programs of certain levels.

So, the main outputs of the project, and at the same time – the tools for making the educational process sustainable, are:

-                     new three level curricula & syllabi;

-                     retrained teaching staff;

-                     new textbooks which summarized the best World experience;

-                     e&m-learning modules;

-                     mobile lectures;

-                     structured doctoral program approach;

-                     methodological guidelines;

-                     eMaris Network and collaboration platform for the AMS community.

To ensure that the received results are being used after the project finalization, it is important to organize the dissemination of the knowledge on three levels: the institutional (within each of the PU), the inter-institutional (to facilitate continuous communication between PU), and the external.

The first level of communication was achieved by arranging information seminars and electronic newsletter system in PU. Project materials were distributed and peer-reviewed within the AAU dissemination system, thus involving practically all institutions in Russia where marine sciences are taught. After assessment and positive feedback, the materials were passed on to the Intergovernmental Oceanographic Commission of UNESCO and to the World Meteorological Organization to ensure their international use. Wider dissemination and feedback from interested target groups will help to achieve the highest quality of developed syllabi and new teaching materials. This was ensured through approval first by AAU and then by the Ministry of Education and Science of the Russian Federation.

When developed and in place, the online collaboration platform will be kept operative by academic and research communities and will not require much further investments. The maintenance costs will be covered from research and education projects. Better interaction between students and teachers from different countries will greatly improve the quality of MSc and PhD education and research.



In frames of the project, first time the analysis, evaluation, comparison of educational programs in AMS in different EU and Russian universities were realized. As a synthesis of this work, the effective working and sustainable competency-based three-level curricula (Bachelor/Master/Doctor) and syllabi in AMS were developed according to the best Bologna practices.

The developed curricula and syllabi will be in use in Russian universities for a long time. The textbooks, learning technologies, new collaboration platform, etc. are expected to be a significant component of educational process in all the PU.

The final stage of the project involves the student exchange between PU to enable the students’ learning on the basis of the newly developed curricula. This activity will contribute to the enforcement of inter-university links making the project sustainable. The collaborative work between PU will also continue after the project end.




Eremina T., Khaimina O., Shilin M. (2014). “International educational collaboration of Russian universities in applied marine sciences”. Proc. of XX International Scientific and Methodical Conference “Modern Education: Content, Technologies, Quality”, St. Petersburg, State Elektrotechnical university publishing house, vol. 1, p. 89 - 90.

Gordeeva S., Novopashenny I., Ogurol Y., Ryzhov V., Zhao J. (2014). “Sakai CLE for blended learning model”. Proc. of International Academic Conference on Education, Teaching and e-Learning, Prague, February – March, p. 157 - 158.

Karlin L., Shilin M., Eremina T., Ershova A., Suzyumov A. (2012). “Studying sustainability through research with the Floating University Program”. Sustainable Development at Universities: New Horizons. Environmental Education, Communication and Sustainability. Peter Lang Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, vol. 34, p. 723 - 731.

Ryzhov V.A. (2013). “Concept and perspectives of use of online testing and distance learning system”. Proc. of Sino-Russian workshop for naval architecture and ocean engineering, Zhoushan, China, October 27-29, Zhejiang university publishing house, p. 12 - 13.

Shilin M., Khaimina O. (2014). “Applied Marine Science”. Textbook. St. Petersburg, Russian State Hydrometeorological university publishing house, p. 85.

Wishnevsky M., Novopashenny I., Zhao J., Ogurol Y., del Valls Casillas A. (2013). “Experience with Sakai CLE in the framework of international educational TEMPUS project eMaris in the field of Applied Marine Scienсes ”.  CALMet X Conference and Eumetical Workshop, Touluse, France, p. 64 - 65.


Biographical notes


Professor Dr. Michael Shilin is working at the Russian State Hydrometeorological University (RSHU, St. Petersburg) since 1989. He is a co-author of the Concept of Environmental Education at technical universities in Russia, and participant of a number of international projects. In 1996 – 2006 he participated in the UNESCO “Baltic Floating University” project, developing the “Training through the Research” principle. He is author of a number of teaching courses and original textbooks: “Natural and Technical Systems in the Coastal Zone” (2008), “Environmental safety of the Technosphere” (2010), “Applied Marine Ecology” (2011). He has more than 140 articles in Russian and International scientific journals.


Dr. Tatjana Eremina is Assistant Professor at the RSHU, St. Petersburg. She graduated this University in 1979, and received PhD in Physics in 1985. Since 1998 she was the Team Leader of the UNESCO “Baltic Floating University” project. During seven years she was a leading teacher of Sustainable Water Management course of International Baltic University Programme at the Uppsala University (Sweden). In the recent time Dr. Eremina has been involved in a number of scientific projects devoted to the Baltic Sea environment study. Since 2011 she is Leader of ongoing educational project “eMaris” of TEMPUS program. She has 85 articles in Russian and International scientific journals.




Главные партнеры

University of Bremen

Российский государственный гидрометеорологический университет

Санкт-Петербургский Государственный Морской Технический Университет
P.P. Shirshov Institute of Oceanology
Балтийский федеральный университет имени Иммануила Канта
Klaipeda University
University of Cádiz
Учебно-методическое объединение высших учебных заведений Российской федерации